Tag Archives: debian

How to Install the Latest Version of R Statistics on Your Raspberry Pi


R for Beginners:  How to Install the Latest Version of R Statistics on Your Raspberry Pi

A tutorial by D. M. Wiig

One of the nice characteristics of open source software such as R is the rapid development of new releases and updates.  While the base core remains stable for a period of time there is a considerable amount of updating,  adding, and removing the component packages.  At the time of this writing the latest iteration is R version 3.3.1, “Bug in Your Hair.” If you are using a Windows platform you will likely go directly to the archive web site and download the latest distribution as a Windows executable installation package.

If you are using a Linux distribution  such as Ubuntu or Debian, the process of adding software is usually accomplished via the menu based installer.  These software installers allow  R and its dependencies to be downloaded from the community archive.

One of the disadvantages of using this approach is that the versions of some software in the community archives may not be updated to the latest version.  This is often the case with R as well as with many other software packages.

To insure that you are downloading the latest R version you need to use the platform’s command line to install what is needed.  You can add the URL’s of some backport archives that are more likely to be kept up to date with current releases.  As an example In this tutorial I will use the R statistical software that I am running on my Raspberry Pi 3 board with a Raspbian OS and the new PIXEL desktop.

Regardless of which Linux distribution you are using first open a command console from the desktop menu. Make sure all is up to date by using the command:

pi@raspberrypi:~ $ sudo apt-get update
This will insure all appropriate packages currently installed are running the latest updates.  If you are running a Raspbian distribution such as jessie you will need to edit the /etc/apt/sources.list file to add a backport to the latest version of R.  Start the nano editor by using the command:

sudo nano /etc/apt/sources.list

This should produce the output as seen below:

pi@raspberrypi:~ $ sudo nano /etc/apt/sources.list

------------------------------------------------
GNU nano 2.2.6 File: /etc/apt/sources.list

deb http://mirrordirector.raspbian.org/raspbian/ jessie main contrib non-free r$
# Uncomment line below then 'apt-get update' to enable 'apt-get source'
deb-src http://archive.raspbian.org/raspbian/ jessie main contrib non-free rpi
deb http://archive.raspbian.org/raspbian/ stretch main
deb http://mirror.las.iastate.edu/CRAN/bin/linux/debian/ jessie main
deb http://mirror.las.iastate.edu/CRAN/bin/linux/ubuntu xenial/

[ Read 8 lines ]
^G Get Help ^O WriteOut ^R Read File ^Y Prev Page ^K Cut Text ^C Cur Pos
^X Exit ^J Justify ^W Where Is ^V Next Page ^U UnCut Text^T To Spell

As is seen above there are several lines containing the standard  Raspbian archives to search.


If you are using a Debian distribution you would add the following line to the file:

http://mirror.las.iastate.edu/CRAN/bin/linux/debian/ jessie main

Replace the 'jessie' portion with the name of the specific Debian distribution you are using replace the 'mirror' portion with the R CRAN mirror that you use.  You also need to add the line that provides the URL of a Raspian 'stretch' archive that contains the most recent updates of many different software packages.  In my case I was looking for the latest R release, but you should search this this archive for the latest version of any software package you are installing.

If you are using an Ubuntu distribution add a line with the appropriate changes for the specific Ubuntu distribution that you are using. 
Check with the documentation provided with your specific Linux distribution to see if there is also a 'stretch' archive maintained for new versions. 

Once these changes are made exit the nano editor using the ^O key command to write the file and then the ^X key command to return to the command line.  You should now be able to issue the command:

pi@raspberrypi:~ $ sudo apt-get install r-base r-base-core r-base-dev

Once the download and install processes have completed you should now be able to invoke R from the command line or menu and see the latest version:

pi@raspberrypi:~ $ R

R version 3.3.2 RC (2016-10-23 r71578) -- "Sincere Pumpkin Patch"
Copyright (C) 2016 The R Foundation for Statistical Computing
Platform: arm-unknown-linux-gnueabihf (32-bit)

R is free software and comes with ABSOLUTELY NO WARRANTY.
You are welcome to redistribute it under certain conditions.
Type 'license()' or 'licence()' for distribution details.

 Natural language support but running in an English locale

R is a collaborative project with many contributors.
Type 'contributors()' for more information and
'citation()' on how to cite R or R packages in publications.

Type 'demo()' for some demos, 'help()' for on-line help, or
'help.start()' for an HTML browser interface to help.
Type 'q()' to quit R.

> 


For other Linux distributions you would add a line similar to the above examples in the /etc/apt/sources.list. Check the documentation for your specific Linux platform for further information about backport archives.

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How To: Download and install the latest version or R on your Linux Ubuntu OS


 

How To: Download and install the latest version or R on your Linux Ubuntu OS

(A Tutorial by D.M. Wiig)

I have several computers that use Linux operating systems and I have installed R on all of them. I use Debian on some of the machines and Ubuntu on others. When downloading R using the distribution’s package manager or from the command line I have notice that I will get versions of R ranging from 2.13.xx to 2.15.xxx depending on the Linux distribution. That has not been a problem until the release of the current version of R, version 3.0.3. Since this version is not backwards compatible with earlier releases it is necessary to upgrade to the new version to take advantage of new packages that are rapidly being developed as well as modification to existing packages to accommodate R 3.0.3. This tutorial will cover the installation of R 3.0.3 on the Ubuntu distribution of Linux.

When installing R 3.0.3 it is necessary to make sure that the current binaries are installed to your version of the Linux OS. If you are running a Ubuntu distribution you can edit the sources.list file on your computer to access the most up to date CRANs. Open a terminal program and enter the following from the command line:

$ cd /etc/apt/

$ dir

Make sure the file sources.list is in the directory and then edit the file opening the nano editor:

$ sudo nano sources.list

You should see a file in the editor that is similar to the file shown below:

—————————————————————————————————-

deb cdrom:[Kubuntu 11.10 _Oneiric Ocelot_ – Release i386 (20111012)]/ oneiric main restricted

deb http://streaming.stat.iastate.edu/CRAN/bin/linux/ubuntu precise/

# See http://help.ubuntu.com/community/UpgradeNotes for how to upgrade to

# newer versions of the distribution.

deb http://us.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu/ precise main restricted

deb-src http://us.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu/ precise main restricted

## Major bug fix updates produced after the final release of the

## distribution.

deb http://us.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu/ precise-updates main restricted

deb-src http://us.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu/ precise-updates main restricted

## N.B. software from this repository is ENTIRELY UNSUPPORTED by the Ubuntu

## team. Also, please note that software in universe WILL NOT receive any

## review or updates from the Ubuntu security team.

deb http://us.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu/ precise universe

deb-src http://us.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu/ precise universe

deb http://us.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu/ precise-updates universe

deb-src http://us.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu/ precise-updates universe

## N.B. software from this repository is ENTIRELY UNSUPPORTED by the Ubuntu

^G Get Help ^O WriteOut ^R Read File ^Y Prev Page ^K Cut Text ^C Cur Pos

^X Exit ^J Justify ^W Where Is ^V Next Page ^U UnCut Text ^T To Spell

—————————————————————————

I have highlighted the line that I added to this file. This line will force Linux to access the CRAN for the latest version of R in a library that is not normally searched for updates if you have an earlier version of R installed. For an Ubuntu distribution change the line to one of the following depending on the distribution that you have installed:

http://<myfavorite-cran-mirror&gt; /bin/linux/ubuntu saucy/

http://<myfavorite-cran-mirror&gt; /bin/linux/ubuntu quantal/

http://<myfavorite-cran-mirror&gt; /bin/linux/ubuntu precise/

http://<myfavorite-cran-mirror&gt; /bin/linux/ubuntu lucid/

Replace <myfavorite-cran-mirror> with the CRAN repository of your choice found at the web site http://cran.r.project.org/mirrors.html. In my case as shown above I used a CRAN repository here in Iowa at Iowa State University. Once the line has been entered in your sources.list file press ctrl-o to save the file, and press ctrl-x to exit the editor. Be sure when you invoke nano that you have root privileges (by using sudo nano) or you will not be able to write out the modified file.

Once you have successfully modified the sources.list file proceed with the R 3.0.3 installation by issuing the command:

$ sudo apt-get update (to make sure all supporting files are current)

and then:

$ sudo apt-get install r-base

When the update runs you should see that R 3.0.x is downloaded and is being installed. After the installation is complete test it by issuing the command:

$ R

You will see the output as shown below:

———————————————

R version 3.0.3 (2014-03-06) — “Warm Puppy”

Copyright (C) 2014 The R Foundation for Statistical Computing

Platform: i686-pc-linux-gnu (32-bit)

R is free software and comes with ABSOLUTELY NO WARRANTY.

You are welcome to redistribute it under certain conditions.

Type ‘license()’ or ‘license()’ for distribution details.

Natural language support but running in an English locale

R is a collaborative project with many contributors.

Type ‘contributors()’ for more information and

‘citation()’ on how to cite R or R packages in publications.

Type ‘demo()’ for some demos, ‘help()’ for on-line help, or

‘help.start()’ for an HTML browser interface to help.

Type ‘q()’ to quit R.

>

You are now up and running with the latest version of R. The process for installation of R 3.0.x is similar for Debian and Fedora distributions. Each of these will be covered in a future tutorial.